DUBLIN, Allergan plc , a leading global pharmaceutical company committed to research informing the treatment of infectious diseases, presented new data identifying hospitalized patients with serious infections due to Enterobactericaeae who are at greater risk for having carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. Results were presented on Oct. 29, 2016 at IDWeek 2016 in New Orleans.
The prevalence of hospital-onset infections due to CRE has increased in recent years.(1) As such, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified CRE as one of the three most urgent public health threats.1CRE has been attributed to approximately 9,000 healthcare-associated infections per year, with 600 deaths per year resulting from the two most common types of CRE, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella species and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli).1
“The increasing prevalence of difficult-to-treat infections—including those caused by CRE— represents a significant challenge to physicians, as certain Gram-negative bacteria have become resistant to nearly all treatments currently available for patients,” said David Nicholson, Ph.D, Chief R&D Officer, Allergan. “These results are an important addition to the growing body of knowledge for the healthcare community on how to make empiric treatment decisions for these patients.”
“This research is a testament to Allergan’s commitment to investing in the clinical and health outcomes research needed to better understand and treat serious infections caused by pathogens of greatest concern,” Nicholson said.
The study, given as an oral presentation titled, “Identification of Patients at Greatest Risk for Carbapenem Resistance in Patients with Serious Hospital-Onset Infections Due to Enterobacteriaceae Species,” evaluated 10,634 U.S. hospitalized patients in the Premier hospital database between January 2011 and December 2014with invasive hospital-onset infections due to Enterobacteriaceae. The overall prevalence of CRE in this total population was 4.5% (481/10,634). Enterobacteriaceae were considered carbapenem-resistant if documented as nonsusceptible to meropenem, imipenem, doripenem or ertapenem.
Results from this retrospective, observational study found that factors associated with increased risk of CRE included the following:
- >2% baseline prevalence of CRE in the hospital where patient is admitted
- Receipt of dialysis in current hospital admission
- Evidence of an infection in the three months prior to current hospital admission
- Cumulative number of prior antibiotic exposure in current or previous hospital admission
“Physicians in the hospital setting are under pressure to quickly act when evaluating and determining appropriate treatment options for admitted patients with serious infections,” said Tom Lodise, PharmD, Ph.D, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and lead investigator of the study. “These data are critically important for healthcare professionals prioritizing new information on CRE prevalence and risk factors associated with the probability of a CRE infection.”
Gram-negative bacteria are highly adaptive pathogens that can develop resistance through several mechanisms and can pass along genetic materials that allow other bacteria to become drug-resistant as well.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing organisms in particular have increased across the country significantly in the past 10 years. In addition, E. coli, Klebsiella (K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca) and Pseudomonas aeruginosaresistance are on the rise.
1 Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/. Accessed September 22, 2016.
SOURCE Allergan plc